…have traditionally been classified as impotence (inability of a man to achieve or maintain penile erection) and frigidity (inability of a woman to achieve arousal or orgasm during sexual intercourse). Because these terms—impotence and frigidity—have developed pejorative and misleading connotations, they are no longer used as scientific classifications, having been…
Content on this website is provided for information purposes only. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional. The information and materials contained on this website are not intended to constitute a comprehensive guide concerning all aspects of the therapy, product or treatment described on the website. All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions and to ascertain whether the particular therapy, service, product or treatment described on the website is suitable in their circumstances. The State of Victoria and the Department of Health & Human Services shall not bear any liability for reliance by any user on the materials contained on this website.
The laboratory results should be discussed with the patient and, if possible, with his sexual partner. This educational process allows a review of the basic aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the sexual response and an explanation of the possible etiology and associated risk factors (eg, smoking and the use of various medications). Treatment options and their benefits and risks should be discussed. This type of dialogue allows the patient and physician to cooperate in developing an optimal management strategy.
MUSE should not be used in men with a history of urethral stricture (narrowing of the tube in the penis that urine and semen pass through), inflammation or infection of the glans (tip) of the penis (balanitis), severe hypospadias (a condition where the opening of the urethra is not at the tip of the penis, rather on the underside of the penis), penile curvature (abnormal bend to the penis), and urethritis (inflammation/infection of the urethra).
When sexually stimulated/aroused, the nerves supplying the penis release a chemical, nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is important because it stimulates the production of a chemical called cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). cGMP causes the muscle in arteries of the penis to relax and increase blood flow into the penis. NO is broken down in the body by phosphodiesterase enzymes. PDE5 inhibitors thus prevent the breakdown of NO and thus promote increased blood flow into the penis.
Your Ro physician may recommend trying the medication under different circumstances. Using the medication the first time can be anxiety provoking so they may suggest using it alone until you are familiar with its effect or side effects. If you’ve been prescribed ED medication on the Ro platform, please contact a physician if you have any questions. You are not alone. Use every tool you can and asking questions when you need answers is one of them.
If you are taking medications (alpha-blockers) for problems with an enlarged prostate, you should discuss your prostate medications with your doctor. Alpha-blockers also can cause lowering of the blood pressure. Thus your doctor will need to carefully watch your blood pressure when you start the PDE5 inhibitor. Common alpha-blockers include doxazosin (Cardura), terazosin (Hytrin), and tamsulosin (Flomax).
Treatment depends on the underlying cause. In general, exercise, particularly of the aerobic type, is effective for preventing ED during midlife. Exercise as a treatment is under investigation.[22]:6, 18–19 For tobacco smokers, cessation often results in a significant improvement.[23] Oral pharmacotherapy and vacuum erection devices are first-line treatments,[22]:20, 24 followed by injections of drugs into the penis, as well as penile implants.[22]:25–26 Vascular reconstructive surgeries are beneficial in certain groups.[24]

In comparison, 37% of men who had received external radiotherapy as their primary therapy reported the ability to attain functional erections suitable for intercourse, along with 43% of men who had received brachytherapy as primary treatment. Pretreatment sexual health-related quality of life score, age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, race or ethnicity, body mass index, and intended treatment details were associated with functional erections 2 years after treatment. [45]

This book will explore alternative and much healthier methods to deal with the sensitive issue of erectile dysfunction. It’s time for men to realize that there is life beyond the pharmacy counter, beyond what our contemporary culture tells us is acceptable, and it’s time to delve into centuries-old remedies that build up, not tear down our system.
While millions of men, along with their loved ones, suffer from many similar and frustrating symptoms of erectile dysfunction, we understand no two cases are alike. And that’s why your private consultation with one of NuMale Medical Center’s caring medical providers is completely tailored to you and your partner’s wants and needs. We’ll carefully listen to your unique situation to create an impotence treatment plan that’s best for you, taking into account your full medical history.
While millions of men, along with their loved ones, suffer from many similar and frustrating symptoms of erectile dysfunction, we understand no two cases are alike. And that’s why your private consultation with one of NuMale Medical Center’s caring medical providers is completely tailored to you and your partner’s wants and needs. We’ll carefully listen to your unique situation to create an impotence treatment plan that’s best for you, taking into account your full medical history.
An alprostadil cream that patients apply into the tip of the penis (the urethral meatus, the opening that urine passes through) is currently available in the UK and Europe. It is currently under review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). After application of the cream, an erection occurs within five to 30 minutes, and the erection lasts one to two hours in men who respond to the cream. Doctors recommend that one use the cream for a maximum frequency of two to three times per week and no more frequent than once every 24 hours. It has essentially the same contraindications and side effects as the other formulations of alprostadil. The cream may cause vaginal burning in roughly 4% of partners. Men should not use alprostadil cream for sexual intercourse with women of childbearing potential unless a condom is used. Researchers have performed controlled trial studies to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this drug. Overall, 52% of men reported improvement in their erections compared to 20% of men receiving placebo. A later analysis demonstrated that 36% of men using the alprostadil cream had a clinically relevant improvement in vaginal penetration ability and 31% clinically relevant improvement in ability to have successful intercourse to ejaculation.

Psychological factors — Psychological issues such as depression, anxiety, guilt or fear can sometimes cause sexual problems. At one time, these factors were thought to be the major cause of impotence. Doctors now know that physical factors cause impotence in most men with the problem. However, embarrassment or "performance anxiety" can make a physical problem worse.


Men with a rare heart condition known as long QT syndrome should not take vardenafil since this may lead to abnormal heart rhythms. The QT interval is the time it takes for the heart's muscle to recover after it has contracted. An electrocardiogram (EKG) measures the QT interval. Some people have longer than normal QT intervals, and they may develop potentially life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms, especially when given certain medications. Men with a family history of long QT syndrome should not take vardenafil, as it is possible to inherit long QT syndrome. Furthermore, vardenafil is not recommended for men who are taking medications that can affect the QT interval such as quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex), procainamide (Pronestyl, Procan-SR, Procanbid), amiodarone (Cordarone), and sotalol (Betapace).

There are many different body parts that play an important role for a man to get and maintain an erection during sexual intercourse. Beyond the physical causes that can lead to ED, it has been reported that 20% of ED is related to psychological causes.2 With so many possibilities leading to erectile dysfunction, it becomes particularly important to find a specialist who can correctly diagnosis the direct cause of your ED and find a treatment option that is right for you.


An alprostadil cream that patients apply into the tip of the penis (the urethral meatus, the opening that urine passes through) is currently available in the UK and Europe. It is currently under review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). After application of the cream, an erection occurs within five to 30 minutes, and the erection lasts one to two hours in men who respond to the cream. Doctors recommend that one use the cream for a maximum frequency of two to three times per week and no more frequent than once every 24 hours. It has essentially the same contraindications and side effects as the other formulations of alprostadil. The cream may cause vaginal burning in roughly 4% of partners. Men should not use alprostadil cream for sexual intercourse with women of childbearing potential unless a condom is used. Researchers have performed controlled trial studies to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this drug. Overall, 52% of men reported improvement in their erections compared to 20% of men receiving placebo. A later analysis demonstrated that 36% of men using the alprostadil cream had a clinically relevant improvement in vaginal penetration ability and 31% clinically relevant improvement in ability to have successful intercourse to ejaculation.
Cavallini, G., Modenini, F., Vitali, G., & Koverech, A. (2005, November). Acetyl-L-carnitine plus propionyl-L-carnitine improve efficacy of sildenafil in treatment of erectile dysfunction after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. Urology, 66(5), 1080-5. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0090429505006515
Testosterone replacement: Men with low sex drive (libido) and ED may be found to have low testosterone levels. Hormone replacement may be of benefit by itself or as a complementary therapy used with other treatments. Libido and an overall sense of well-being are likely to improve when serum testosterone levels are restored. The constitution of symptoms of low libido, fatigue, decreased muscle mass and force, and increased body fat may be related to andropause. As mentioned previously, in the patient workup section, serum total testosterone and bioavailable testosterone blood tests can be performed to evaluate for low serum levels. If determined to be below normal, replacement of testosterone may be suggested as a treatment option. The primary objective of testosterone replacement is to improve libido, energy levels, and symptoms of andropause. Only secondarily would correction of low testosterone levels potentially have impact on erectile function. Some studies suggest that in men with low or low normal testosterone levels and ED who fail PDE5 inhibitors that the use of hormone therapy may improve the success of PDE5 inhibitors.
You may find that using a vacuum device requires some practice or adjustment. Using the device may make your penis feel cold or numb and have a purple color. You also may have bruising on your penis. However, the bruises are most often painless and disappear in a few days. Vacuum devices may weaken ejaculation but, in most cases, the devices do not affect the pleasure of climax, or orgasm.
There are myriad factors, both mental and physical, that may contribute to your erectile dysfunction symptoms. Some of the most common impotence causes include diabetes, hypertension, prostate problems, low testosterone and obesity, which can not only put a damper on your sexual enjoyment, but play a key role in your total male vitality, too. (Even medications that are often prescribed to control some of the aforementioned issues can be behind some of the frustrating symptoms of ED.) There are factors like depression, stress and anxiety that can leave you longing for your glory days, and the coping mechanisms like alcohol and tobacco that can make a roll in the sheets less satisfying for you and your partner. We’ll listen to you with a compassionate ear and thoughtfully consider what may be contributing to your ED symptoms, then draw up your perfect, personalized treatment.
Oral ED medication is considered highly effective and studies show it works on the majority of men. But no medication works for everyone and ED medication is no exception. Everyone’s reaction to a medication is unique and anything potent enough to help is strong enough to have side effects. If the medication isn’t working, it is important to tell your doctor. Sometimes it is a matter of needing a higher dose. Also, it has been shown that it takes 6 to 8 tries using the medication to experience the best result.
3. Are there physical causes of erectile dysfunction? Erectile dysfunction may be a symptom of underlying medical conditions, which if not detected may cause further medical problems. A prior history of cigarette smoking, heart attacks, strokes, and poor circulation in the extremities (for example, intermittent claudication or cramping in your leg[s] when you walk) suggest atherosclerosis as the cause of the erectile dysfunction. Loss of sexual desire and drive, lack of sexual fantasies, gynecomastia (enlargement of breasts), and diminished facial hair suggest low testosterone levels. A prior history of pelvic surgery or radiation and trauma to the penis/pelvis/perineum can cause problems with the nerves and blood vessels. Symptoms of intermittent claudication of the lower extremities with exercise may suggest a vascular problem as a cause of the erectile dysfunction.
Alprostadil is a potent vasodilator and smooth muscle relaxant identical to the naturally occurring PGE1. PGE1 binds with specific receptors on smooth muscle cells and activates intracellular adenylate cyclase to produce cAMP, which in turn induces tissue relaxation through a second messenger system (96). PGE1 is the only FDA approved form of intracavernosal therapy and is available commercailly as EDEX, or Caverject. Its efficacy was demonstrated in several clinical trials where the rate of responders ranged from 40% to 80% (97,98). The most common adverse event is penile pain, which is not related to the injection of the medication itself. In men with prolonged use the pain is usually self-limited (99).
Picture of the three components of inflatable penile implant. This inflatable penile device has three major components. The two cylinders are placed within the penis, a reservoir is placed beneath the rectus muscle, and the pump is placed in the scrotum. When the pump is squeezed, fluid from the reservoir is transferred into the two cylinders, producing a firm erection. Squeezing the top of the pump causes a reversal of flow of the fluid from the cylinders back into the reservoir.
Monitoring erections that occur during sleep (nocturnal penile tumescence) can help you and your doctor to understand if the erectile dysfunction is due to psychological or physical causes. The nocturnal penile tumescence test is a study to evaluate erections at night. Normally men have three to five erections per eight hours of sleep. The test can be performed at home or in a sleep lab. The most accurate way to perform the test involves a special device that is connected to two rings. The rings are placed around the penis, one at the tip of the penis and the other at the bottom (base) of the penis. The device records how many erections occur, how long they last, and how rigid they are. The test is limited in that it does not assess the ability to penetrate.
Vardenafil and tadalafil belong to the same group of chemical compounds as sildenafil, namely phos-phodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Some men cannot benefit from sildenafil or the two newer PDE-5 inhibitors because they have low levels of nitric oxide. British investigators reported in late 2002 that three different types of compounds are being studied as possible medications for men with low levels of nitric oxide. They are Rho-kinase inhibitors, soluble guanylate cyclase activators, and nitric oxide-releasing PDE-5 inhibitors.
Alprostadil may also be administered into the urethral opening of the penis. In MUSE (medical urethral system for erection), the man inserts a thin tube the width of a vermicelli noodle into his urethral opening and presses down on a plunger to deliver a tiny pellet containing alprostadil into his penis. The drug takes about 10 minutes to work and the erection lasts about an hour. The main side effect is a sensation of pain and burning in the urethra, which can last about five to 15 minutes.
Following a detailed discussion about the history of erectile dysfunction and its risk factors, your doctor will examine the testicles and penis to help determine the cause of erectile dysfunction. Your doctor will check reflexes and pulses in the area to see if problems with blood vessels or nerves are contributing to the erectile dysfunction. If necessary, your doctor will order tests to help diagnose erectile dysfunction.

It appears that testosterone has NOS-independent pathways as well. In one study, castrated rats were implanted with testosterone pellets and then divided into a group that received an NOS inhibitor (L-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME]) and a control group that received no enzyme. [24] The castrated rats that were given testosterone pellets and L-NAME still had partial erections, a result suggesting the presence of a pathway independent of NOS activity.


Several medications can interfere with the chemical processing of PDE5i medications by the liver. These can include ketoconazole (an antifungal medication known by the brand name Nizoral), erythromycin (an antibiotic), and cimetidine (also known as Tagamet, for reducing stomach acid). A lower dose of PDE5i medications should be used if one is taking any of these medications.
While pills for ED are convenient, some men sustain stronger erections by injecting medication directly into the penis. Drugs approved for this purpose work by widening the blood vessels, causing the penis to become engorged with blood. Another option is inserting a medicated pellet into the urethra. The pellet can trigger an erection within 10 minutes.
×