PDE5i medications are absolutely not to be taken by men with heart conditions who are taking nitrates such as nitroglycerine or isosorbide (Isordil, Ismo, Imdur). Those with serious heart disease, exertional angina (chest pain), and those taking multiple drugs for high blood pressure are advised to seek the advice of a heart specialist before beginning therapy with sildenafil.
"For men who are unwilling or unable to self-inject alprostadil, the FDA has approved this dissolvable pellet that can be inserted directly into the urethra, the opening of the penis," says Dr. Feloney. MUSE, with an inspiring name that actually stands for medicated urethral system for erection, will trigger an erection in about 10 minutes that may last as long as an hour. Using MUSE to treat ED can result in somewhat unpleasant side effects, however — including an aching sensation, burning, redness, and minor bleeding.
Alprostadil, a synthetic PGE1, is the most commonly used single drug for injections into the penis as a treatment for ED. It works well in the majority of men who try it. In one study of 683 men with ED, 94% reported having erections suitable for penetration after PGE1 injections. When PGE1 is used in combination with papaverine and Regitine, the mixture is called Trimix, which has roughly twice the effectiveness of alprostadil alone. However, Trimix is quite expensive and is usually not covered by insurance, while PGE1 is often a covered benefit in most insurance medication plans. The main side effects are pain from the medication (not from the injection), priapism (persistent or abnormally prolonged erection), and scarring at the site of the injection. It is recommended that one alternate the side of the penis being injected to help decrease the risk of penile scarring. Many men are uncomfortable with penile injection therapy even though the injection itself is painless. The injection cannot be done more often than every other day. Men on anticoagulant medications (blood thinners) must be careful with injection therapy.
Inside the cell, NOS catalyzes the oxidation of L-arginine to NO and L-citrulline. Endogenous blockers of this pathway have been identified. The gaseous NO that is produced acts as a neurotransmitter or paracrine messenger. Its biologic half-life is only 5 seconds. NO may act within the cell or diffuse and interact with nearby target cells. In the corpora cavernosa, NO activates guanylate cyclase, which in turn increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Relaxation of vascular smooth muscles by cGMP leads to vasodilation and increased blood flow.
In a randomized double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial, sildenafil plus testosterone was not superior to sildenafil plus placebo in improving erectile function in men with ED and low testosterone levels. [19] The objective of the study was to determine whether the addition of testosterone to sildenafil therapy improves erectile response in men with ED and low testosterone levels.
Knowing about your history of ED will help your health provider learn if your problems are because of your desire for sex, erection function, ejaculation, or orgasm (climax). Some of these questions may seem private or even embarrassing. However, be assured that your doctor is a professional and your honest answers will help find the cause and best treatment for you.
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